*Math. Mod. Meth. App. Sci.*to appear. Preprint arXiv:2405.00541)

This paper presents a critical analysis of the literature and perspective research ideas for modeling the epidemics caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It goes beyond deterministic population dynamics to consider several key complexity features of the system under consideration. In particular, the multiscale features of the dynamics from contagion to the subsequent dynamics of competition between the immune system and the proliferating virus. Other topics addressed in this work include the propagation of epidemics in a territory, taking into account local transportation networks, the heterogeneity of the population, and the study of social and economic problems in populations involved in the spread of epidemics.